Study of a Cold Spray Nozzle Throat on Acceleration Characteristics via CFD | Journal of Engineering Sciences

Study of a Cold Spray Nozzle Throat on Acceleration Characteristics via CFD

Author(s): Hu W. J1, 2., Tan K.1, Markovych S.1., Liu X. L.2

Affiliation(s):
1 National Aerospace University “Kharkiv Aviation Institute”, 17, Chkalova St., 61000 Kharkiv, Ukraine;
2 School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanchang Institute of Technology, Nanchang, China.

*Corresponding Author’s Address: 837406613@qq.com

Issue: Volume 8, Issue 1 (2021)

Dates:
Received: February 17, 2021
The final version received: May 26, 2021
Accepted for publication: May 29, 2021

Citation:
Hu W. J., Tan K., Markovych S., Liu X. L. (2021). Study of a cold spray nozzle throat on acceleration characteristics via CFD. Journal of Engineering Sciences, Vol. 8(1), pp. F19–F24, doi: 10.21272/jes.2021.8(1).f3

DOI: 10.21272/jes.2021.8(1).f3

Research Area:  CHEMICAL ENGINEERING: Processes in Machines and Devices

Abstract. Cold spray technology can obtain coatings in a solid state, suitable for deposition protection, repair, and additive manufacturing. In order to further expand the application areas of cold spraying nozzles, especially the inner surface of the components or areas where a Straight-line conical nozzle cannot be applied, because the study of the throat of the nozzle with the angle will directly reduce the total length of the nozzle (the horizontal direction), hence, the spray with the angle will show its advantage. This study discusses the influence of the throat structure of the conical cold spray nozzle on the acceleration characteristics, including the throat’s size, length, and angle. The results show the following. Firstly, under the premise of keeping the shrinkage ratio and divergence ratio unchanged at normal temperature, the throat diameter is between 2–6 mm in size, and the maximum growth rate exceeds 20 m/s. When the throat exceeds 6mm, the growth rate of the outlet slows down, and the growth rate is only 8 m/s. Secondly, the length of the throat has little effect on the acceleration characteristics, the total range fluctuated from 533 to 550 m/s, and 11 mm length of the throat is the closest to 0mm. Additionally, the 90° throat angle has the least effect on the acceleration characteristics. Finally, the particle trajectory is affected by inlet pressure, injection pressure, particle size, and other factors.

Keywords: cold spray technology, nozzle, acceleration characteristics, particle trajectory.

References:

  1. Assadi, H., Gartner, F., Stoltenhoff, T., Kreye, H. (2003). Bonding mechanism in cold gas sparing. Acta Materialia, Vol. 51, pp. 4379–4394, doi: 1016/S1359-6454(03)00274-X.
  2. Hu, W. J., Sergii, M., Tan, K., Shorinov, O., Cao, T. T. (2020). Surface repair of aircraft titanium alloy parts by cold spraying technology. Aerospace technic and technology. Vol. 163, pp. 30–42, doi: 10.32620/aktt.2020.3.04.
  3. MacDonald, D., Fernandez. R., Delloro. F., Jodoin. B. (2017). Cold spraying of armstrong process titanium powder for additive manufacturing. Thermal Spray Technol, Vol. 26, pp. 598–609, doi: 10.1007/s11666-016-0489-2.
  4. Li, W. Y., Li, C. J. (2005). Optimal design of a novel cold spray gun nozzle at a limit space. Thermal Spray Technology. Vol. 14, pp. 391–396, doi: 10.1361/105996305X59404.
  5. Wu, Z. L. (2011). Numerical Simulation Research of the Internal Flow Field Cold of the Spray Gun Nozzle and Structural Optimization. Henan Polytechnic University.
  6. Canales, H., Litvinov, A., Markovych, S., Dolmatov, A. (2014). Calculation of the critical velocity of low pressure cold sprayed materials. Aircraft Design and Manufacturing Issues, Vol. 3, pp. 86–91. Available online: http://nbuv.gov.ua/UJRN/Pptvk_2014_3_11.
  7. Li, Q. (2008). Structure Design and Optimization of Cold Spray Gun. Shenyang University of Technology. Available online: http://cdmd.cnki.com.cn/article/cdmd-10142-2008203950.htm.
  8. Wenya, L., Changjiu, L. (2005). Optimal design of a novel cold spray gun nozzle at a limited space. Journal of Thermal Spray Technology, Vol. 14, pp. 391–396. doi: 10.1361/105996305X59404.
  9. Shuo, Y., Meyer, M., Wenya, L., Hanlin, L., Lupoi, R. (2016). Gas flow, particle acceleration, and heat transfer in cold spray: A rewiew. Journal of Thermal Spray Technology, doi: 10.1007/s11666-016-0406-8.
  10. Alhulaifi, A. S., Buck, G. A. (2014). A simplified approach for the determination of critical velocity for cold spray processes. Journal of Thermal Spray Technology, Vol. 23, pp. 1259–1269, doi: 10.1007/s11666-014-0128-8.
  11. Congcong, C., Wenya, L., Tianpeng, H., et al. (2019). Simulation study on effect of cold spray nozzle material on particle. Journal of Netshape Forming Engineering, Vol. 6, pp. 149–53.
  12. Zhang, Y. J, Liang, Y. L, Zhang J. B. (2011). Numerical simulation of particle tracks in the cold gas dynamic spraying process. Baosteel Technology, Vol. 5, pp. 12–16, doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1008-0716.2011.05.003.
  13. Sunday, T. O., Jen, T. C. (2019). A comparative review on cold gas dynamic spraying processes and technologies. Manufacturing Rev, Vol. 25, pp. 1–20, doi: 10.1051/mfreview/2019023.
  14. Pelletier, J. L. (2013). Development of Ti-6Al-4V Coating onto Ti-6Al-4V Substrate Using Low Pressure Cold Spray and Pulse Gas Dynamic Spray. University of Ottawa. Available online: http://dx.doi.org/10.20381/ruor-4265.
  15. Jin, L., Cui, X. Z., Ding, Y. F., Zhang, L., and Su, X. D. (2017). Critical deposition velocity calculations and properties investigations of TC4 cold spray coatings. Surface Technology, Vol. 46, pp. 96–101, doi: 10.16490/j.cnki.issn.1001-3660.2017.08.016.

Full Text



© 2014-2021 Sumy State University.
"Journal of Engineering Sciences"
ISSN 2312-2498 (Print), ISSN 2414-9381 (Online).
All rights reserved.