Carburization-Based Optimization of AISI 8620 Steel Using Rice Husks and Charcoal as Carburizers | Journal of Engineering Sciences

Carburization-Based Optimization of AISI 8620 Steel Using Rice Husks and Charcoal as Carburizers

Author(s): Okwesileze I. A.1, Okafor O. C.2, Atanmo P. N.1, Ekengwu I. E.3, Uyaelumuo E. I.1

1 Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Uli, Nigeria;
2 Grundtvig Polytechnic, Oba Nigeria;
3 Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author’s Address: [email protected]

Issue: Volume 9, Issue 2 (2022)

Submitted: October 6, 2022
Accepted for publication: December 9, 2022
Available online: December 12, 2022

Okwesileze I. A., Okafor O. C., Atanmo P. N., Ekengwu I. E., Uyaelumuo E. I. (2022). Carburization-based optimization of AISI 8620 steel using rice husks and charcoal as carburizers. Journal of Engineering Sciences, Vol. 9(2), pp. C9-C18, doi: 10.21272/jes.2022.9(2).c2

DOI: 10.21272/jes.2022.9(2).c2

Research Area:  MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING: Materials Science

Abstract. This study was centered on improving the mechanical properties of AISI 8620 steel using the carburization technique. The failure in service conditions of many steel components such as cams, gears, and shafts necessitated the research as it demands that they possess both high wear-resistant surfaces and tough shock-resistant cores. Standard test samples prepared from the steel material were subjected to a pack carburization process using rice husk and charcoal as carburizers, and the energizer – calcium trioxocarbonate (IV) at temperatures of 800, 850, 900, and 950 °C, and held for 60, 90, and 120 minutes. The samples were quenched in water and tempered at 500°C for 60 minutes. After the pack hardening process, the test samples were subjected to tensile, impact, and hardness tests. From the data obtained, ultimate tensile strength (UTS), Hardness, Young’s Modulus, engineering strain, and impact strength were calculated. The case and core hardness of the carburized samples were noted, and an optical microscope was used to observe the microstructural features of the case-hardened, quenched, and tempered samples. The responses (mechanical properties of steel) were optimized using response surface methodology to obtain the optimum carburizing conditions-temperature and holding time. Results showed that the sample’s microhardness core and microhardness case increased from 253 to 327 HV and from 243 to 339 HV as the holding time increased from 60 to 120 minutes, indicating an appreciable increase in the mechanical property of the samples. The optimum carburizing conditions were at a temperature of 885 °C and a holding time of 120 minutes. Hence, the carburization of AISI 8620 steel using rice husk and charcoal as carburizers improved the steel material’s case, core, and mechanical properties.

Keywords: materials science, carburization, rice husks, charcoal, steel, optimization.


  1. Zbigniew, Z., Sisson, R. D. (2016). Development of nitrogen-hydrocarbon atmospheric carburizing and process control methods. Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, Vol. 10(7), pp. 1-37.
  2. Kenan, G., Mehmet, D. (2017). Effect of case depth on fatigue performance of AISI 8620 carburized steel. International Journal of Fatigue, Vol. 21, pp. 207-212.
  3. Fuchs, H. O., Stephens, R. I. (2015). Metal Fatigue in Engineering, John Wiley, New York, USA, pp. 231-239.
  4. Balusamy, T., Sankara Narayanan, T. S. N., Ravichandran, K., Song Park, I., Lee, M. H. (2013). Pack boronizing of AISI H11 tool steel: Role of surface mechanical attrition treatment. Vacuum, Vol. 97, pp. 36-43, doi: 10.1016/j.vacuum.2013.04.006.
  5. Oluwafemi, O. M., Oke, S. R., Otunniyi, I. O., Aramide, F. O. (2015). Effect of carburizing temperature and time on mechanical properties of AISI/SAE 1020 steel using carbonized palm Kernel Shell. Leonardo Electronic Journal of Practices and Technologies, Vol. 14(27), pp. 41-56.
  6. Istiroyah, M. A., Saroja, G., Ghufron, M., Juwono, A. M. (2017). Characteristics of low temperature carburized austenitic stainless steel. International Conference on Chemistry and Material Science, Vol. 299, 012048, doi: 10.1088/1757-899X/299/1/012048.
  7. Siti, K. A., Bulan, A., Ahmed, J., Syazuan, A. L., Salmiah, K., Mohd, F. I., Muhd, M. A. (2013). Mechanical properties of paste carburized ASTM A516 steel. The Malaysian International Tribology Conference 2013, MITC2013, Vol. 68, pp. 525-530.
  8. Aramide, F. O., Ibitoye, S. A., Oladede, I. O., Borode, J. O. (2009). Effects of carburization time and temperature on the mechanical properties of carburized mild steel, using activated carbon as carburizer. Mat. Res., Vol. 12(4), pp. 483-487, doi: 10.1590/S1516-14392009000400018.
  9. Li, W., Sun, Z., Zhang, Z., Deng, H., Sakai, T. (2015). Influence of case-carburizing and micro-defect on competing failure behaviors of Ni–Cr–W steel under gigacycle fatigue. International Journal of Fatigue, Vol. 72, pp. 66-74, doi: 10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2014.11.004.
  10. Hussein, N. (2017). Material Science and Engineering. International Energy and Environment Foundation (IEEF), pp. 172-187.

Full Text

© 2014-2024 Sumy State University
"Journal of Engineering Sciences"
ISSN 2312-2498 (Print), ISSN 2414-9381 (Online).
All rights are reserved by SumDU